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Dr. Willie Soon

Astrophysicist

Solar, Stellar and Planetary Sciences Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)

wsoon@cfa.harvard.edu



Academic qualifications

Ph.D., University of Southern California
1991

Ph.D., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering (with distinction) Dissertation Topic: Nonequilibrium Kinetics in High-Temperature Gases.


M.Sc., University of Southern California
1987

M.Sc., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering.


B.Sc., University of Southern California
1985

B.Sc., University of Southern California, Aerospace Engineering (Cum Laude).




Experience

Astrophysicist / Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)
1997 - Present

Astrophysicist at the Solar, Stellar and Planetary Sciences Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)


Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (CERES)
2018 - Present

Center for Environmental Research and Earth Sciences (CERES-science.com)


Senior Visiting Professor / Institute of Earth Environment
2018

Senior Visiting Professor at the Institute of Earth Environment, Xian, China (from June 15-July 2, 2018.)


Senior Visiting Fellow / Xiamen University
2013 - 2014

Senior Visiting Fellow (Grant No. MELRS1219) at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science at Xiamen University, China


Astronomer / Mount Wilson Observatory
1992 - 2009

Astronomer at the Mount Wilson Observatory, CA, USA


Visiting Professor / Universiti of Putra
1999 - 2000

Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies of the Universiti of Putra, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


Post-doctoral Scientist / Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)
1991 - 1996

Post-doctoral Scientist at the Solar and Stellar Physics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)


Research

Editorial Boards
  1. 2020-present: Editorial Board Member for Geoscience (MDPI).
  2. 2002-2016: Receiving Editor for New Astronomy (Elsevier).

Books
  1. P. N. Okeke and W. Soon, Introduction to Astronomy (University of Nigeria Press, University Physics Series), 2004.
  2. W. Soon and S. H. Yaskell, The Maunder Minimum and The Variable Sun-Earth Connection, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004

Peer-reviewed publications
  1. R. Connolly, Willie Soon, M. Connolly, S. Baliunas, J. Berglund, C. J. Butler, R. G. Cionco, A. G. Elias, V. M. Fedorov, H. Harde, G. W. Henry, D. V. Hoyt, O. Humlum, D. R. Legates, S. Luning, N. Scafetta, J.-E. Solheim, L. Szarka, H. van Loon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, R. C. Willson, H. Yan and W. Zhang (2021). How much has the Sun influenced Northern Hemisphere temperature trends? An ongoing debate. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics (accepted for publication).
  2. X.H. Zhao, Willie Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, Holocene millennial-scale solar variability and the climatic responses on Earth, Universe, 7, 36 (2021). Journal homepage
  3. V. Velasco Herrera, Willie Soon, D. R. Legates, Does machine learning reconstruct missing sunspots and forecast a new solar minimum?, Advances in Space Research, in press (2021). Journal homepage
  4. L. Szarka, Willie Soon, R. G. Cionco, How the astronomical aspects of climate science were settled? On the Milankovitch and Bacsak anniversaries, with lessons for today, Advances in Space Research, 67, 700-707 (2021). Journal homepage
  5. Travis S. Metcalfe, Jennifer L. van Saders, Sarbani Basu, Derek Buzasi, William J. Chaplin, Ricky Egeland, Rafael A. Garcia, Patrick Gaulme, Daniel Huber, Timo Reinhold, Hannah Schunker, Keivan G. Stassun, Thierry Appourchaux, Warrick H. Ball, Timothy R. Bedding, Sebastien Deheuvels, Lucia Gonzalez-Cuesta, Rasmus Handberg, Antonio Jimenez, Hans Kjeldsen, Tanda Li, Mikkel N. Lund,Savita Mathur, Benoit Mosser, Martin B. Nielsen, Anthony Noll, Zeynep Celik Orhan, Sibel Ortel, Angela R. G. Santos, Mutlu Yildiz, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon, The evolution of rotation and magnetic activity in 94 Aqr Aa from Asteroseismology with TESS, Astrophysical Journal, 900: 154 (2020). Journal homepage
  6. X.H. Zhao, Willie Soon, V. M. Velasco Herrera, Evidence for solar modulation on the millennial-scale climate change of Earth, Universe, 6, 153 (2020). Journal homepage
  7. S. Qiu, N. Wang, Willie Soon, G. Lu, M. Jia, X. Dou, Sporadic sodium layers: A possible tracer for the conjunction between the upper and lower atmosphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, December 29 (2020). Journal homepage
  8. C.C. Liu, H. Yan, H.B. Fei, G. Shi, P. Cheng, H.F. Wen, S.G. Kang, M. Li, Willie Soon, J. Dodson, W.J. Zhou, Z.Sh. An, Dynamic of Tridacna spp. population variability in northern SCS over past 4500 years derived from AMS 14C dating, Science of the Total Environment, 748, 141359 (2020). Journal homepage
  9. C. O'hAiseadha, G. Quinn, R. Connolly, M. Connolly and Willie Soon. Energy and climate policy: An evaluation of global climate change expenditure 2011-2018. Energies, 13, 4839 (2020). Journal homepage
  10. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, R.M. Carter and Willie Soon. How much human-caused global warming should we expect with business-as-usual (BAU) climate policies? A semi-empirical assessment. Energies, 13, 1365 (2020). Journal homepage
  11. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Willie Soon, Ana G. Elias, and Nancy Esther Quaranta, Latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene II-High frequency variations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 1992-2000 (2020). Journal homepage
  12. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Willie Soon, and Nancy Esther Quaranta, On the calculation of latitudinal insolation gradients throughout the Holocene: A new tool for solar forcing simulations, Advances in Space Research, 66, 720-742 (2020). Journal homepage
  13. Suyog Garg, Bidya Binay Karak, Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Waldmeier effect in stellar cycles, Astrophysical Journal, 886, 132 (2019). Journal homepage
  14. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, Peter O'Neill, Jingyun Zheng, Quansheng Ge, Zhixin Hao and Hong Yan (2019). Reply to Li & Yang's comments on "Comparing the current and early 20th century warm periods in China". Earth-Science Reviews, 189, 102950. Journal homepage
  15. T. Heredia, F. Bazzano, R. G. Cionco, Willie Soon, F. Medina, and A. Elias, Searching for solar-like interannual to bidecadal effects on temperature and precipitation over a Southern Hemisphere location, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 193, 105094 (2019). Journal homepage
  16. R. Connolly, M. Connolly, Willie Soon, D.R. Legates, R.G. Cionco and V. M. Velasco Herrera. Northern hemisphere snow-cover trends (1967-2018): A comparison between climate models and observations. Geosciences, 9(3), 135 (2019). Journal homepage
  17. ChengCheng Liu, Hong Yan, Haobei Fei, Xiaolin Ma, Wenchao Zhang, Ge Shi, Willie Soon, John Dodson, Zhisheng An, Temperature seasonality and ENSO variability in northern South China Sea during Medieval Climate Anomaly interval as derived from the Sr/Ca ratios of Tridacna shell, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 180, 103880 (2019). Journal homepage
  18. W. Soon, V.M. Velasco Herrera, R. G. Cionco, S. Qiu, S. Baliunas, R. Egeland, G. Henry, Co-variations of chromospheric and photometric variability of the young Sun analog HD 30495: Evidence for and interpretation of mid-term periodicities, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 483: 2748-2757 (2019). Journal homepage
  19. Shican Qiu, Willie Soon, Xiankang Dou, Xianghui Xie, Tao Li, Wanyin Wang, Mingjiao Jia, Chao Ban, Xin Fang, and Yihuan Tang, Sudden sodium layers: Their appearance and disappearance, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123, 10.1029/2017JA024883 (2018). Journal homepage
  20. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, Peter O'Neill, Jingyun Zheng, Quansheng Ge, Zhixin Hao and Hong Yan, Comparing the current and early 20th century warming periods in China, Earth-Science Reviews, 185, 80- 101 (2018). Journal homepage
  21. V.M. Velasco Herrera, J. Perez-Peraza, W. Soon, and J.C. Marquez-Adame, The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of 1.7 years in Ground Level Enhancement Events, New Astronomy, 60, 7-13 (2018). Journal homepage
  22. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, Jose Ernesto Valentini, Nancy Esther Quaranta, and Willie Soon, Lunar fingerprints in the modulated incoming solar radiation: In- situ insolation and latitudinal insolation gradients as two important interpretive metrics for paleoclimatic data records and theoretical climate modeling, New Astronomy, 58, 96-106 (2018). Journal homepage
  23. Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, and Willie Soon, Re-calibration of Arctic sea ice extent datasets using Arctic surface air temperature records, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 62, 1317-1340 (2017). Journal homepage
  24. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, and Willie Soon, Short-term Orbital Forcing: A quasi- review and a reappraisal of realistic boundary conditions for climate modeling, Earth-Science Reviews, 166, 206-222 (2017). Journal homepage
  25. Ricky Egeland, Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Jefferey Hall, Alexei Pevtsov, and Luca Bertello, The Mount Wilson Observatory S-Index of the Sun, Astrophysical Journal, 835: 25 (16 pp) (2017). Journal homepage
  26. Velasco Herrera V.M., Soon, W., Velasco Herrera G., Traversi R and Horiouchi K, Generalization of the cross-wavelet functions, New Astronomy, 56, 86-93 (2017). Journal homepage
  27. K. Olah, Zs. Kovari, K. Petrovay, W. Soon, S. Baliunas, Z. Kollath, K. Vida, Magnetic cycles at different ages of stars, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 590, A133 (2016). Journal homepage
  28. Willie Soon, Ronan Connolly, Michael Connolly, Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century, Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 409-452 (2015). Journal homepage
  29. I. G. Usoskin, et al. (with Willie Soon as one co-author), The Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 581, A95 (2015). Journal homepage
  30. C. Monckton of Brenchley, W. Soon, D. R. Legates, W.M. Briggs, Keeping it simple: the value of an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 1378-1390 (2015). Journal homepage
  31. W. Soon, and D. R. Legates, Response to the comment on: "Soon, W., and Legates, D.R., solar irradiance modulation of equator-to-pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, (2013) 45-56" by F. Meunier and A. H. Reis", Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 128, 92-93 (2015). Journal homepage
  32. Hong Yan, Wei Wei, Willie Soon, ZhiSheng An, WeiJian Zhou, ZhongHui Liu, YuHong Wang, Robert M Carter, Dynamics of the Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Western Pacific During the Little Ice Age, Nature Geoscience, 8, 315-320 (2015). Journal homepage
  33. C. Monckton of Brenchley, W. Soon, D. R. Legates, W.M. Briggs, Why models run hot: results from an irreducibly simple climate model, Science Bulletin, 60, 122-135 (2015). Journal homepage
  34. Hong Yan, Willie Soon, YuHong Wang, A composite sea surface temperature record of the northern South China Sea for the past 2500 years: A unique look into seasonality and seasonal climate changes during warm and cold periods, Earth- Science Reviews, 141, 122-135 (2015). Journal homepage
  35. K. M. Hiremath, H. Manjunath, and W. Soon, Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: Dancing with the Tunes of the Sun, New Astronomy, 35, 8-19 (2015). Journal homepage
  36. Rodolfo Gustavo Cionco, and Willie Soon, A phenomenological study of the timing of solar activity minima of the last millennium through a physical modeling of the Sun-Planets Interactions, New Astronomy, 34, 164-171 (2015). Journal homepage
  37. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, W.M. Briggs, and C. Monckton of Brenchley, Climate consensus and misinformation: A rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change, Science and Education, 24, 299-318 (2015). Journal homepage
  38. David R. Legates, Willis Eschenbach, and Willie Soon, Arctic albedo changes are small compared with changes in cloud cover in the tropics (Letter), Proceedings of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences, 111, E2157-E2158 (2014). Journal homepage
  39. Willie Soon, Victor Velasco, Selvaraj Kandasamy, Rita Traversi, Ilya G Usoskin, Chen-Tung A Chen, Jiann-Yuh Lou, Shuh-Ji Kao, Robert M Carter, Valery Pipin, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, A review of Holocene solar-linked climatic variation on centennial to millennial timescales: Physical processes, interpretative frame- works and a new multiple cross-wavelet transform algorithm, Earth-Science Reviews, 134, 1-15 (2014). Journal homepage
  40. W. Soon, and D. R. Legates, Solar Irradiance Modulation of Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients: Empirical Evidence for Climate Variation on Multi-decadal Timescales, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 93, 45-56 (2013). Journal homepage
  41. D. R. Legates, W. Soon, and W.M. Briggs, Learning and teaching climate science: The perils of consensus knowledge using agnotology, Science and Education, 22, 2007-2017 (2013). Journal homepage
  42. W. Soon, K. Dutta, D. R. Legates, V. Velasco, and W. Zhang, Variation in Surface Air Temperature of China During the 20th Century, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 2331-2344 (2011). Journal homepage
  43. R. Agnihotri, K. Dutta, and W. Soon, Temporal Derivative of Total Solar Irradiance and Anomalous Indian Summer Monsoon: An Empirical Evidence for a Sun-Climate Connection, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73, 1980-1987 (2011). Journal homepage
  44. J. S. Armstrong, K. C. Green, W. Soon, Research on Forecasting for the Man-made Global Warming Alarm, Energy & Environment, 22, 1091-1104 (2011). Journal homepage
  45. W. Soon and D. R. Legates, Avoiding carbon myopia: Three considerations for policy makers concerning manmade carbon dioxide, Ecology Law Currents, 37, 1-9 (2010). Journal homepage
  46. M. M. Katsova, M. A. Livshits, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and D. D. Sokoloff, Differential Rotation of some HK-Project stars and the butterfly diagrams, New Astronomy, 15, 274-281 (2010). Journal homepage
  47. K. Olah, Z. Kollath, T. Granzer, K. G. Strassmeier, A. F. Lanza, S. Jarvinen, H. Korhonen, S. L. Baliunas, W. Soon, S, Messina, and G. Cutispoto, Multiple and changing cycles of active stars. II. Results, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 501, 701-713 (2009). Journal homepage
  48. K. C. Green, J. S. Armstrong, W. Soon, Validity of climate change forecasting for public policy decision making, International Journal of Forecasting, 25, 826-832 (2009). Journal homepage
  49. W. Soon, Comments on HESS Opinion "A random walk on water" by D. Koutsoyiannis, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 6, C2852- C2856 (2009). Journal homepage
  50. W. Soon, Solar Arctic-mediated climate variation on multidecadal to centennial timescales: Empirical evidence, mechanistic explanation, and testable consequences, Physical Geography, 30, 144-184 (2009). Journal homepage
  51. J. Liu, B. Wang, Q. Ding, X. Kuang, W. Soon, E. Zorita, Centennial variations of the global monsoon precipitation in the last millennium: Results from ECHO-G model, Journal of Climate, 22, 2356-2371 (2009). Journal homepage
  52. M. Dyck, W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al., "Response to Dyck et al. (2007) on polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay by Stirling et al. (2008)", Ecological Complexity, 5, 289-302 (2008). Journal homepage
  53. J. S. Armstrong, K. C. Green, W. Soon, Polar bear population forecasts: A public-policy forecasting audit, Interfaces, 38, 382-405 (2008) (plus 3 comments and our reply). Journal homepage
  54. G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff, G. W. Henry, S. Henry, R.R. Radick, S.L. Baliunas, R.A. Donahue, and W. Soon, Patterns of photometric and chromospheric variations among sun-like stars: A 20-year perspective, Astrophysical J. Suppl. Series, 171, 260-303 (2007). Journal homepage
  55. W. Soon, Implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide and methane forcing in climate change: Past, present, and future, Physical Geography, 28, 97-125 (2007). Journal homepage
  56. M. Dyck, W. Soon (as co-first authors) et al. Polar Bears of Western Hudson Bay and Climate Change: Warming Spring Air Temperatures as the "Ultimate" Survival Control Factor?, Ecological Complexity, 4, 73-84 (2007). Journal homepage
  57. K. Olah, K. G. Strassmeier, T. Granzer, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, Changing stellar activity cycles, Astronomische Nachrichten, 328, 1072-1074 (2007). Journal homepage
  58. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonic and standing dynamo waves: Theory and observation of stellar magnetic activity, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 365, 181 (2006). Journal homepage
  59. W. Soon, Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, (2005). Journal homepage
  60. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Moss, E. Popova, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing), Anharmonicity of Stellar Cycles: A wavelet quantification, Solar Physics, 224, 179 (2004). Journal homepage
  61. P. Frick, W. Soon, E. Popova and S. Baliunas, Time-spectra of chromospheric activity of old solar-type stars: Detection of rotational signals from Double Wavelet Analysis, New Astronomy, 9, 599 (2004). Journal homepage
  62. J. Lin and W. Soon, Evolution of Morphological Features of CMEs Deduced from Catastrophe Model of Solar Eruptions, New Astronomy, 9, 611 (2004). Journal homepage
  63. W. Soon, D. R. Legates and S. Baliunas, Estimation and Representation of Long- Term (> 40 years) Trends of Northern-Hemisphere-Gridded Surface Temperature: A Note of Caution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L03209 (2004). Journal homepage
  64. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, and D. R. Legates, Comment on "On Past Temperature and Anomalous Late-20th Century Warmth", Eos, 84 (no. 44), 473 (2003). Journal homepage
  65. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, C. Idso, S. Idso and D. R. Legates, Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal, Energy & Environment, 14, 233 (2003). Journal homepage
  66. W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Annual Progress Report on Global Warming: 2001- 2002, Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 448 (2003). Journal homepage
  67. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on "Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns and uncertainties" by D. J. Karoly, J. F. B., Mitchell, M. Allen, G. Hegerl, J. Marengo, F. Zwiers, Climate Research, 24, 93 (2003). https://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2003/24/c024p093.pdf Journal homepage
  68. W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Last 1000 Years, Climate Research, 23, 89 (2003). Journal homepage
  69. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Theories of Solar Eruptions: A Review, New Astronomy Reviews, 47, 53 (2003). Journal homepage
  70. J. Lin, W. Soon and S. Baliunas, Eruptive processes in the solar atmosphere and the theories, (in Chinese), Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 1601-1612 (2002). Journal homepage
  71. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Reply to Comments on "Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns and uncertainties" by James Risbey, Climate Research, 22, 187 (2002). Journal homepage
  72. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: Unknowns and un- certainties, Climate Research, 18, 259 (2001). Journal homepage
  73. W. Soon, S. Baliunas, K. S. Demirchan, S. B. Idso, K. Ya. Kondratyev, and E. S. Posmentier, The impact of anthropogenic CO2 emission on climate: Unresolved Problems (in Russian), Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, 133, 1 (2001).
  74. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing ? Annales Geophysicae, 18, 583 (2000). Journal homepage
  75. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, E. S. Posmentier, and P. N. Okeke, Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to Mid-1998, New Astronomy, 4, 563 (2000). Journal homepage
  76. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. Soon, Photo- metric and Ca II H and K Spectroscopic Variations in Sun-like Stars with Planets III, Astrophysical J., 431, 415 (2000). Journal homepage
  77. E. S. Posmentier, W. H. Soon, and S. L. Baliunas (equal contribution by Posmentier and Soon), Natural variability in an-ocean-atmosphere climate model, Journal of Physics Malaysia, 19, 157 (2000).
  78. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, A. B. Robinson, and Z. W. Robinson, Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Climate Research, 13, 149 (1999). Journal homepage
  79. W. Soon, P. Frick, and S. Baliunas, Lifetime of surface features and stellar rotation: A wavelet time-frequency approach, Astrophysical J. Letters, 510, L135 (1999). Journal homepage
  80. P. Frick, S. Baliunas, D. Galyagin, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon, Wavelet analysis of stellar chromospheric activity variations, Astrophysical J., 483, 426 (1997). Journal homepage
  81. S. Baliunas, P. Frick, D. Sokoloff and W. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as lead author), Timescales and trends in the Central England Temperature Data (1659-1990): A Wavelet Analysis, Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 1351 (1997). Journal homepage
  82. S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Henry, R. A. Donahue, F. C. Fekel, and W. H. Soon, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: ?1 Cancri, ? Bootis, and ? Andromedae, Astrophysical J. Letters, 474, L119 (1997). Journal homepage
  83. G. W. Henry, S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, and S. H. Saar, Properties of Sun-like Stars with Planets: 51 Pegasi, 47 Ursae Majoris, 70 Virginis, and HD 114762, Astrophysical J., 474, 503 (1997). Journal homepage
  84. W. H. Soon, E. S. Posmentier, and S. L. Baliunas, Inference of solar irradiance variability from terrestrial temperature changes, 1880-1993: An astrophysical application of the sun-climate connection, Astrophysical J., 472, 891 (1996). Journal homepage
  85. S. L. Baliunas, E. Nesme-Ribes, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as lead author), A Dynamo Interpretation of Stellar Activity Cycles, Astrophysical J., 460, 848 (1996). Journal homepage
  86. S. L. Baliunas, D. D. Sokoloff, W. H. Soon (alphabetical listing with W. Soon as lead author), Magnetic Field and Rotation in Lower Main Sequence Stars: An Empirical Time-Dependent Magnetic Bode's Relation?, Astrophysical J. Letters, 457, L99 (1996). Journal homepage
  87. S. L. Baliunas, and W. H. Soon, Are Variations in the Length of the Activity Cycle Related to Changes in Brightness in Solar-type Stars? Astrophysical J., 450, 896 (1995). Journal homepage
  88. H. J. Choi, W. H. Soon, R. A. Donahue, S. L. Baliunas, and G. W. Henry, A Study of Variability in a Sample of G-K Giants, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 744 (1995). Journal homepage
  89. V. C. Cristian, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, and G. W. Henry, Pulsation Timescales and Amplitudes in a Sample of Bright Semi-Regular Variable Stars, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 107, 411 (1995). Journal homepage
  90. S. L. Baliunas, R. A. Donahue, W. H. Soon, J. H. Horne, and others, Chromospheric variations in main-sequence stars. II, Astrophysical J., 438, 269 (1995). Journal homepage
  91. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, Variations in surface activity of the Sun and solar-type stars, Solar Physics, 154, 385 (1994). Journal homepage
  92. Q. Zhang, W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, G. W. Lockwood, B. A. Skiff and R. R. Radick, A method of determining possible brightness variation of the Sun in past centuries from observations of solar-type stars, Astrophysical J. Letters, 427, L111 (1994). Journal homepage
  93. W. H. Soon, Q. Zhang, S. L. Baliunas and R. L. Kurucz, The Mount Wilson Observatory metallicity index, CRV : Comparison to other photometric systems, Astrophysical J., 416, 787 (1993). Journal homepage
  94. W. H. Soon, S. L. Baliunas and Q. Zhang, An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, Astrophysical J. Letters, 414, L33 (1993). Journal homepage
  95. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Maximum principal quantum numbers of the atomic hydrogen in the solar chromosphere and photosphere, Astrophysical J., 396, 364 (1992). Journal homepage
  96. W. H. Soon, Analytical cross sections and rate coefficients for H-H inelastic collisions, Astrophysical J., 394, 717 (1992). Journal homepage
  97. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Analytical ionization cross sections for atomic collisions, J. Chem. Phys., 95, 5738 (1991). Journal homepage
  98. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Electron Boltzmann equation in non-thermal plasmas, Phys. Rev. A, 43, 4409 (1991). Journal homepage
  99. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Kinetics and continuum emission of negative atomic ions in partially-ionized plasmas, Phys. Rev. A, 43, 723 (1991). Journal homepage
  100. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Radiation of partially-ionized atomic hydrogen, Phys. Fluids B, 2, 2833 (1990). Journal homepage
  101. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Nitrogen-plasma continuum emission associated with N?(3P) and N?(1D) ions, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 4531 (1990). Journal homepage
  102. W. H. Soon and J. A. Kunc, Thermal nonequilibrium in partially-ionized atomic oxygen, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 825 (1990). Journal homepage
  103. J. A. Kunc and W. H. Soon, Collisional-radiative nonequilibrium in partially- ionized atomic nitrogen, Phys. Rev. A, 40, 5822 (1989). Journal homepage